Java – Basic Data Types in java..

A data type is used to specify the compiler about the type of value will be stored in the variable.

Example:text,numbers etc.

There are two data types available in Java:

  1. Primitive Data Types
  2. Reference/Object Data Types

Primitive Data Types:

There are eight primitive data types supported by Java. Primitive data types are predefined by the language and named by a key word. Let us now look into detail about the eight primitive data types.

byte:

  • Byte data type is a 8-bit signed two’s complement integer.
  • Minimum value is -128 (-2^7)
  • Maximum value is 127 (inclusive)(2^7 -1)
  • Default value is 0
  • Byte data type is used to save space in large arrays, mainly in place of integers, since a byte is four times smaller than an int.
  • Example : byte a = 100 , byte b = -50

short:

  • Short data type is a 16-bit signed two’s complement integer.
  • Minimum value is -32,768 (-2^15)
  • Maximum value is 32,767(inclusive) (2^15 -1)
  • Short data type can also be used to save memory as byte data type. A short is 2 times smaller than an int
  • Default value is 0.
  • Example : short s= 10000 , short r = -20000

int:

  • Int data type is a 32-bit signed two’s complement integer.
  • Minimum value is – 2,147,483,648.(-2^31)
  • Maximum value is 2,147,483,647(inclusive).(2^31 -1)
  • Int is generally used as the default data type for integral values unless there is a concern about memory.
  • The default value is 0.

Example : int a = 100000, int b = -200000.

long:

  • Long data type is a 64-bit signed two’s complement integer.
  • Minimum value is -9,223,372,036,854,775,808.(-2^63)
  • Maximum value is 9,223,372,036,854,775,807 (inclusive). (2^63 -1)
  • This type is used when a wider range than int is needed.
  • Default value is 0L.
  • Example : int a = 100000L, int b = -200000L

float:

  • Float data type is a single-precision 32-bit IEEE 754 floating point.
  • Float is mainly used to save memory in large arrays of floating point numbers.
  • Default value is 0.0f.
  • Float data type is never used for precise values such as currency.
  • Example : float f1 = 234.5f

double:

  • double data type is a double-precision 64-bit IEEE 754 floating point.
  • This data type is generally used as the default data type for decimal values. generally the default choice.
  • Double data type should never be used for precise values such as currency.
  • Default value is 0.0d.
  • Example : double d1 = 123.4

boolean:

  • boolean data type represents one bit of information.
  • There are only two possible values : true and false.
  • This data type is used for simple flags that track true/false conditions.
  • Default value is false.
  • Example : boolean one = true

char:

  • char data type is a single 16-bit Unicode character.
  • Minimum value is ‘\u0000’ (or 0).
  • Maximum value is ‘\uffff’ (or 65,535 inclusive).
  • Char data type is used to store any character.
  • Example . char letterA =’A’

Reference Data Types:

  • Reference variables are created using defined constructors of the classes. They are used to access objects. These variables are declared to be of a specific type that cannot be changed. For example, Employee, Puppy etc.
  • Class objects, and various type of array variables come under reference data type.
  • Default value of any reference variable is null.
  • A reference variable can be used to refer to any object of the declared type or any compatible type.
  • Example : Animal animal = new Animal(“giraffe”);

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